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2 edition of probability of detecting and tracking radar targets in clutter at low grazing angles found in the catalog.

probability of detecting and tracking radar targets in clutter at low grazing angles

R. W. Haddow

probability of detecting and tracking radar targets in clutter at low grazing angles

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Published .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis(Ph.D.) - Loughborough University of Technology 1982.

Statementby R.W. Haddow.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19574745M

3. B. Currie and S. Haykin () ((DRDC Report), Bayesian Detector Evaluation and Comparison, Final Report prepared for Defence Research and Development, Ottawa, under contract No. W//SV, pp. 1–58, April FLUCTUATING TARGET DETECTION IN LOW-GRAZING ANGLE WITH MIMO RADAR By J. Ding, H. W. Chen, X. Li, and Z. Zhuang the detectors of fluctuating targets, i.e., Swerling , with multipath are analyzed. Finally, the simulation results show that the performance can be enhanced markedly when the multipath effects are considered. V. Chiriac, A.   CPA is a good identifier of clutter echoes since it is a metric of the primary characteristic of ground-clutter echo from stationary targets: low variance of backscatter phase over typical weather radar measurement times and resolutions (1° subtended scan angle for a Cited by: Title: Probability of Detection for Fluctuating Targets Author: Peter Swerling Subject: An analysis of the probability of detection of a target by a pulsed search radar, when .

and classify threat emitters. Modern radar systems in turn aim to operate undetected by intercept re-ceivers. These radar systems maintain Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) by utilizing low power emis-sions, coded waveforms, wideband operation, narrow beamwidths and evasive scan patterns without compromising accuracy and resolution.


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probability of detecting and tracking radar targets in clutter at low grazing angles by R. W. Haddow Download PDF EPUB FB2

Recently, non-coherent radar detection probability for gamma fluctuating targets in correlated K distributed clutter was calculated in [8].

Nevertheless, the target echoes are also independent of. Radar detection in clutter. the NCG and NCGG clutter models for low grazing angles. They are motivated by physical arguments, the latter of which can accommodate the well-known phenomenon of. CurryR˙book Radar Clutter 81 • Sea state.

σ0 increases with sea state. • Polarization. For smooth terrain and sea surface and low grazing angles, σ0 is greater for vertical polarization than for horizontal polarization. For rough terrain and at high grazing angles, theFile Size: KB. Low-grazing angle targets are di–cult to detect, which is one of the great threats propelling radar development.

Otherwise, detecting low-altitude targets is of great signiflcance to counter low-altitude air defence penetration. However, up to now, this problem has not been efiectively resolved.

Multipath efiect plays an important. Multipath effect is the main factor of deteriorating target detection performance in low grazing angle scenario, which results from reflections on the ground/sea surface.

Amplitudes of the received signals fluctuate acutely due to the random phase variations of reflected signals along different paths; thereby the performances of target detection and tracking are heavily : Yang Xia, Zhiyong Song, Zaiqi Lu, Hao Wu, Qiang Fu.

Fig. 12 is a plot of the mean value of σ° for sea clutter as a function of the grazing angle. It applies for a medium sea (10–20 knot winds). At the lower grazing angles, sea clutter increases slowly with increasing winds above 15 to 20 knots (a few tenths of a decibel per knot). probability of detection (PD), while maintaining the probability of false alarm (PFA) lower than or equal to a given value [1].

The problem of detecting radar echoes in additive, white, Gaussian noise has been studied widely, but less attention has been paid to the problem of detecting radar targets in clutter. In relation with the application. Abstract. Knowledge of radar sea-clutter phenomenology allows accurate models to be developed for assessing target detection performance.

The majority of work in this area has been at low-grazing angles from clifftops or wave tanks and does not consider scattering in the high grazing angle region beyond 10 improve our understanding at high grazing angles 15 0 to 45 0, the DSTO's Ingara. 7 7/ Normalized RCS σ0 R Radar pulse Elevation R Azimuth h ψ Clutter patch antenna footprint φgr ρ θel θaz R θaz ρsec φgr The normalized clutter reflectivity, σ0, is defined as the total RCS, σ, of the scatterers in the illuminated patch, normalized by the area, A c, of the patch and it is measured in units of dBm 2/m 2.

local grazing angle. Low probability of intercept (LPI) radar is increasingly critical to covert surveillance, target tracking and stealth operations - as is the capability to detect it. Now, the world's most authoritative book on LPI emitter design and counter-LPI techniques explores the latest advances in the field in a new edition complete with ready-to-use Cited by: Prof.

David Jenn Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Dyer Road, Room Monterey, CA () [email protected], [email protected]   This radar has Look-down/shoot-down capability, meaning it can detect, track and guide a weapon to an air target moving below the horizon as seen by the radar.

This is dependent on the pulse-doppler capability to distinguish between moving and non-moving targets while ignoring ground clutter and. Clutter is a term used for unwanted echoes in electronic systems, particularly in reference to radars.

Such echoes are typically returned from ground, sea, rain, animals/insects, chaff and atmospheric turbulences, and can cause serious performance issues with radar systems. 1 Backscatter coefficient. 2 Clutter-limited or noise-limited radar. The primary factor for this situation and operational condition is driven by the fact that the mean sea clutter return decreases dramatically at low grazing angles (e.g.

degrees grazing) and target radar returns are easily affected by the large clutter signature return. Operating at higher altitudes (i.e. lower grazing angles. low grazing angle clutter has been reported by various researchers over many years []. In [3,4], a model was developed to capture this behaviour so that it could be applied to the modelling and simulation of sea clutter Doppler spectra at low grazing angles.

In this paper, it is shown how models for Doppler spectra based on observations atFile Size: 1MB. Empirical Sea Backscatter Models for Low Grazing Angles. For surface clutter (sea, land, or ice) the term. 0 is used to represent the normalized mean (or median) reflectivity from an area on the surface of the earth illuminated by a radar.

In some references, the term. is used. The value is constant only for a given angle, carrier frequency, sea state, wind direction polarization, and. The coherent temporal characteristics of medium-to-low grazing angle sea clutter and small boat reflectivity are considered for different radar waveforms under a range of environmental conditions and geometrical configurations.

Accurate empirical modelling of sea clutter enables the inference of the local sea conditions from radar returns, pertinent for port safety and by: In this paper, we consider low-grazing angle target detection in compound-Gaussian clutter for MIMO radar.

e compound-Gaussian clutter represents the heavy-tailed clutter statistics that are distinctive of several scenarios, for example, high-resolution or low-grazing angle radars in the presence of sea or foliage clutter [, ].Totheend,the.

Low probability of intercept (LPI) is that property of an emitter that because of its low power, wide bandwidth, frequency variability, or other design attributes, makes it difficult to be.

Abstract. Because the wideband spiky sea clutter that is frequently observed at low grazing angles and high resolutions plays a critical role in the performance of modern naval radars, it is necessary to analyze two important quantities, the mean spike duration and the mean interval between : Fred Posner, Karl Gerlach.

Physics-based sea clutter model for improved detection of low radar cross-section targets. In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP (pp. [] (ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Cited by: 2.

Purchase Low-Angle Radar Land Clutter - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBNBook Edition: 1. Radar land clutter constitutes the unwanted radar echoes returned from the earth's surface that compete against and interfere with the desired echoes returned by targets such as aircraft and other moving and stationary targets.

The ability to accurately predict the effects of land clutter in surface radar has been an unsolved problem for many. The second edition of Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter.

Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small.

Description. grazAng = grazingang(H,R) returns the grazing angle for a sensor H meters above the surface, to surface targets R meters away. The computation assumes a curved earth model with an effective earth radius of approximately 4/3 times the actual earth radius.

In this paper, a novel correlation feature-based detector is proposed to deal with the challenging problem of detecting a range-distributed target embedded in nonstationary sea clutter.

It is well known that sea clutter consists of a speckle component modulated by texture. The nonstationary property of sea clutter is mainly reflected in texture, but its correlation characteristic is mainly Cited by: 4.

The proposed multiple target TBDF method is extended to track targets in sea clutter using highly time-varying radar measurements. A generalized likelihood func-tion for closely spaced multiple targets in compound Gaussian sea clutter is derived together with the maximum likelihood estimate of the model parameters using an.

BASP in order to recover targets masked by Doppler-spread surface backscatter from points beyond the radar’s maximum unambiguous range while maintaining target detectability elsewhere in Doppler. Current methods for mitigating range-folded clutter, such as reducing the.

The drive is on to devise LPI radar systems that evade hostile detection as well as develop non-cooperative intercept devices that outsmart enemy LPI radar.

Based on the author's own design experience, this comprehensive, hands-on book gives you the latest design and development techniques to innovate new LPI radar systems and discover new ways to intercept enemy LPI radar. and help you 5/5(1).

Cumulative Probability of Detection for Targets Approaching a Uniformly Scanning Search Radar Author: J. Mallett Subject: A discussion of the capability of search radars for detecting approaching targets.

Created Date: 8/27/ PM. The technique of radar clutter map elaboration for land backscattering at the frequency band of 3 - GHz for small grazing angles is proposed taken into consideration the terrain relief and vegetation. The sources and methods for receiving of the initial data for Cited by: 5.

enhancing the probability of detecting small objects in a clutter environment. The final step is the actual detection that makes use of the advantages of the parametric representation.

This results in a lower rate of false detections and as a consequence the later stages, like clustering and tracking, receive a more accurate input. TheFile Size: KB.

the local grazing angle for use with the above mentioned clutter models. By means of a specialized hidden surface algorithm it is possible to discern areas which would not be accessible for a given radar device position, which is especially important for land-based or airborne radar devices working at.

DETECTION OF RADAR TARGETS IN CLUTTER 3. PROPERTIES OF THE CLUTTER SIGNAL From the assumptions, one can assert that x(t) and y(t) are normally distributed with zero mean and a variance equal to 1/~a2, where = EIz2} ~_,e~(~-wat) may be interpreted as the clutter power : Lars-Henning Zetterberg.

Low probability of intercept (LPI) radar is increasingly critical to covert surveillance, target tracking and stealth operations - as is the capability to detect it. Now, the world's most authoritative book on LPI emitter design and counter-LPI techniques explores the latest advances in the field in a new edition complete with ready-to-use.

In the measurement of the mean backscatter. 0 from the sea, the number of independent clutter samples determines the accuracy of the estimated mean value of the backscatter. It has been shown in Sec. that the sea return from a given cell is correlated for a period of many milliseconds and that to achieve accuracies of about 1 dB in the estimation of the mean requires measurement times in.

A necessary reference for all radar engineers or analysts including many levels of managers, advisors and decision makers in the U.S. and worldwide radar industry. Directly useful in both military (DOD) and civilian (FAA) applications. The result of 20 years of research at MIT Lincoln Lab, this book is of the most significant tehcnological consequence for the industry.

The radar has a search scan time of and we desire no more than one false alarm every two scans. From the last sentence above we get. If we combine this with the PRI we get. () From and we get.

() This results in () and. () E.g. Papoulis, A. “Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes” McGraw-Hill. mission by active radar has been facilitated by the availability of waveform-agile sensors.

In this paper, we propose a method to em-ploy waveform agility to improve the detection of low radar-cross section (RCS) targets on the ocean surface that present low signal-to. Radar Sea Clutter - Modelling and Applications Instructors: Prof.

Simon Watts; SW Research Consultancy Low grazing angle (RRE, GIT, Sittrop, TSC, Hybrid, Nathanson) Medium/high grazing angles (Nathanson, TSC, Ulaby, Masuko etc) Clutter spikes Characterization of clutter spikes in the time and frequency domains. Secondary roles include detection of ships at sea and ground surface targets, location of jammers, tracking of targets and detection of interceptors.

[2,3] In addition the targets may not be distant. The targets can pop out of the water nearly under the EAW radar.THE MODELLING OF RADAR SEA CLUTTER 1. Papers presented in the thesis The papers listed below are the subjects of this thesis.

They are referenced by number in the supporting text and the full papers are appended to the thesis, labelled Paper 1, Paper 2 etc. [1] K D Ward, C J Baker and S Watts, “Maritime Surveillance radar part 1: Radar.Probability distribution of low-altitude propagation loss from radar sea clutter data Peter Gerstoft and William S.

Hodgkiss Marine Physical Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA L. Ted Rogers and Michael Jablecki Atmospheric Propagation Branch, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, California, USA.